The significant role bones play in the body cannot be overemphasized.

Aside from functioning as muscle attachment points (thereby making movements like kneeling, lifting, sitting, jumping, and running feasible), the bones also help protect the body’s organs.

When force is exerted upon the bones (for instance, in the case of blows or falls), it might not be able withstand the impact and breaks.

The loss of integrity may sometimes result to fractures.

However, bone fractures cannot be exclusively attributed to blows or falls alone.

For instance, in the case of those people with osteoarthritis, it won’t require much for the bone to break especially since it has already become brittled due to lack of calcium.

Classification of bone fractures are based on the following:

  • Bone alignment
  • Whether the are complications in blood or nerve function
  • Whether the skin of the injury site remains intact

Common Types

Compression Fracture

Compression fractures often occur as a result of injury, osteoporosis, or trauma.

  • Compression fractures secondary to injury can also come with spinal cord or nerve root irritation.
  • Patients with osteoporosis lack calcium in their bones. Aside from weak bones, their vertebrae might also end up getting weak, making holding up against the forces of gravity challenging. Eventually, it can also lead to compression.
  • Compression fractures can also be caused by motor vehicle crashes and falls.


Stress Fracture

A stress fracture occurs when the bone can no longer withstand repeated stress.

Stress fractures often develop in the lower leg.

This type is also commonly seen among athletes, especially runners.

Continued participation in offending activities and lack of proper attention can cause stress fractures to become complete fractures.

Skull Fracture

The skull functions by protecting the brain.

Although it often takes a massive blow to cause a fracture, this type of fracture is not one to be taken lightly.

Bleeding of the injury site and localized swelling are some of the most prevalent signs associated with the injury.

Different types of skull fractures:

Open skull fracture – this type of fracture occurs when there is laceration in the scalp and there is a likelihood it connects with the brains’ fibrous coversing (meninges). Surgery is often required to avoid infection.

Depressed skull fracture – this type occurs when the bone is broken and the broken fragments are pushed inward. Surgery would be a likely option. However, whether it is recommended or not would often depend on some key factors like depth of the depression and whether or not brain tissues are involved.

Basilar skull fracture – this kind of fracture to the skull pertains to the damage that occurs to the bone situated at the brain’s base. Common indicators of the injury include bloody drainage from the ear or nose, bruising around the eyes (raccoon eyes), and bruising in the ear.

Other common bone fractures include the forearm (radius and ulna), ankle, hip, and collarbone (clavicle).

In children, a fracture in the distal radius is considered one of the most common.

Broken Hand or Fingers

Since used often in routine activities performed daily, hand and finger injuries are understandably common.

Aside from checking for any broken bones, health care professionals will also check if there are any damages to the tendons or the nerves.

Broken Hip

For those who are 75 years old (and above), hip fractures are common.

While most fractures are attributed to falls and trauma, some cases of broken hips can be the result of osteoporosis.

Oftentimes, surgery will be required to fix hip fractures.

However, the surgery that will be carried out will depend on the fracture’s location in the femur.